# PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Increment/Decrement operators
• Logical operators
• String operators
• Array operators

## PHP Operators with Example

### Arithmetic operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

• Operator Name Example Result
• `+` Addition `\$x + \$y` Sum of `\$x` and `\$y`
• `- `Subtraction `\$x - \$y` Difference of `\$x` and` \$y`
• `*` Multiplication` \$x * \$y` Product of `\$x `and `\$y`
• `/ `Division` \$x / \$y` Quotient of `\$x` and `\$y`
• `% `Modulus `\$x % \$y` Remainder of `\$x` divided by `\$y`
• `** `Exponentiation `\$x ** \$y` Result of raising \$x to the `\$y'th` power (Introduced in PHP 5.6)
``````<?php
\$x = 8;
\$y = 2;

echo \$x + \$y."\n";
echo \$x - \$y."\n";
echo \$x * \$y."\n";
echo \$x / \$y."\n";
echo \$x % \$y."\n";
echo \$x ** \$y."\n";
?>   ``````
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### Assignment operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is` "="`. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

• Assignment Same as… Description
• `x = y x = y` The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
• `x += y x = x + y` Addition
• `x -= y x = x - y` Subtraction
• `x *= y x = x * y `Multiplication
• `x /= y x = x / y` Division
• `x %= y x = x % y` Modulus
``````<?php
\$x = 10;
\$y = 20;

\$res=\$x = \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";

\$res= \$x += \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";

\$res= \$x -= \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";

\$res= \$x *= \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";

\$res= \$x /= \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";

\$res= \$x %= \$y;
echo \$res."<br>";
?>``````
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### Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

• Operator Name Example Result
• `== `Equal` \$x == \$y` Returns true if \$x is equal to `\$y`
• `=== `Identical `\$x === \$y` Returns true if \$x is equal to \$y, and they are of the same type
• `!= `Not equal `\$x != \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is not equal to `\$y`
• `<> `Not equal `\$x <> \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is not equal to `\$y`
• `!== `Not identical `\$x !==` `\$y` Returns true if `\$x` is not equal to `\$y`, or they are not of the same type
• `>` Greater than `\$x > \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is greater than `\$y`
• `<` Less than \$x `< \$y `Returns true if `\$x` is less than `\$y`
• `>= `Greater than or equal to `\$x >= \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is greater than or equal to `\$y`
• `<=` Less than or equal to `\$x <= \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is less than or equal to `\$y`

### Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.

• Operator Name Description
• `++\$x` Pre-increment Increments `\$x` by one, then returns `\$x`
• `\$x++ `Post-increment Returns `\$x,` then increments `\$x` by one
• `--\$x `Pre-decrement Decrements `\$x` by one, then returns `\$x`
• `\$x--` Post-decrement Returns `\$x`, then decrements `\$x` by one

### Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

• Operator Name Example Result
• and And `\$x` and `\$y `True if both `\$x` and `\$y` are true
• `or Or \$x` or `\$y` True if either `\$x` or `\$y` is true
• `xor Xor` `\$x xor \$y `True if either `\$x` or `\$y `is true, but not both
• && And `\$x && \$y` True if both `\$x` and `\$y` are true
• `|| Or` `\$x || \$y `True if either `\$x` or `\$y` is true
• !` Not !\$x `True if `\$x `is not true

### String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

• Operator Name Example Result
• `. `Concatenation `\$txt1 . \$txt2 `Concatenation of `\$txt1` and `\$txt2`
• `.= `Concatenation assignment `\$txt1 .= \$txt2` Appends `\$txt2 `to `\$txt1`

### Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

• Operator Name Example Result
• `+` Union `\$x + \$y` Union of \$x and \$y
• `==` Equality `\$x == \$y `Returns true if `\$x `and` \$y `have the same key/value pairs
• `=== `Identity` \$x === \$y `Returns true if` \$x` and `\$y` have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types
• `!= `Inequality `\$x != \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is not equal to `\$y`
• `<> `Inequality `\$x <> \$y `Returns true if `\$x` is not equal to` \$y`
• `!== `Non-identity `\$x !== \$y` Returns true if `\$x` is not identical to `\$y`